Cultural Entities 


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1. Overview




Berumerfehn-Canal, Berumfehn Moor, town-boundary Aurich, Ems-Jade-Canal, city-boundary Emden, connection to Emden – Ley Bay, neighbouring cultural landscapes: Krummhörn, Norderland and Harlingerland


Roughly 174 km²

Location - map:

East Frisian Geest-ridge and peatland marsh, administrative district Aurich, Lower Saxony, Germany

Origin of name:

“fallow land” (?)

Relationship/similarities with other cultural entities:

Comparable to Auricherland and parts of Wangerland/Jeverland. Shares a similar political history in the Middle Ages under Chieftain rule with other Lower Saxony areas.

Characteristic elements and ensembles:

Agricultural use, “Aufstreck-settlements” (linear street village), peatland colonisation, Geest landscape, fehnland, peat-cutting, dikes, dwelling mound-villages, brick churches, pirates based in Marienhafe.

2. Geology and geography

2.1 General
Brookmerland is located in the western part of East Frisia, within the administrative district of Aurich. It occupies the Geest-ridge from Osteel in the north, to Forlitz Blaukirchen in the south. Whether the so-called Suderland, with the villages of Simonswolde, Riepe, Ochtelbur and Bangstede belongs to it, is not completely certain. Apart from Marienhafe, Aurich is mentioned in the Brookmer Letter from the 13th century as the market-town of a district. Thus the Zuder- and the Aurich Land must have been split off as separate units at a later date. In the Middle Ages the central peat-zone of the East Frisian Geest-ridge dominated the east of the Brookmerland, whilst the peat-marsh extended to the west of the Geest-ridge. This originated from the post-glacial increase in sea level which caused the Geest-ridge peatland to be covered with clay and water sediments. Due to the rise in the sea level the drainage of water from the Geest was hindered and thus the growth of peat developed. Only the rise in the sea-level in the 1st century BC stopped the growth of the peat. In this period a small bay developed, into which the river Lay flowed.

The character of today’s area is the result of the medieval building of dykes. The Abelitz, which rises close to Marienhafe, drained the Brookmerland. The depression and the Wolden area to the south, squeezed in between the high marsh of the Krummhörn and the Geest-ridge of todays’s “Großes Meer”, drains the area into the Bay of Sielmönken. In the end the building of dykes in the 12th/13th century made a diversion into Lay Bay necessary. This increased flow of water into the bay triggered the expansion of the Lay Bay and the catastrophic loss of land in the 14th century.

The name of the cultural landscape “Brookmerland”, formerly Brokmerland still refers in the present day to the original composition of the land as “fallow land”.

2.2 Present landscape
The present Brookmerland consists of the administrative district of Brookmerland and the community of Südbrookmerland. The area is dominated by intensive agricultural use and the settlement structure of the so-called “Aufstreck-settlements” as well as by the drainage-ditches. The Old and the New Greetsiel sluice channels to the west, as well as the Knockster Tief to the south drain the area. Geomorphologically Brookmerland is subdivided into the Geest, with the peatbog areas and the peat-marsh areas off the Geest, as well as into the marsh-areas in the former Ley Bay.
The Brookmerland is divided into almost equal parts from the north to the south, as well as from west to east by today's federal roads, B72 and B210.

3. Landscape and settlement history 

The Brookmerland has a complex settlement history, and its marsh landscape reflects man’s continual struggle to gain and preserve the marsh for human habitation. Characteristic monuments of the process are the dykes, fehns and dwelling mounds. The large scale investigation of the North German mud flats, as well as to a smaller degree the Brookmerland marsh, has been carried out by the Archaeological Service of the East-Frisian Association (Ostfriesische Landschaft) and the Institut für historische Küstenforschung (Institute for Historic Coastal Research) among others.

3.1 Prehistoric and Medieval Times

At what time the Brookmerland was settled, and the form of that settlement has not yet been identified. However, the climatic conditions were favourable for the colonisation of the low land around 1000 AD. The archaeological finds and geographical investigations into settlement indicate that as early as the early Middle Ages, i.e. in the 9th/10th centuries, the colonisation of the marsh began; it was extended in the 9th and 11th centuries to the peat-bogs. The Geest border of the Brookmerland offered the initial settlement a starting point for the Aufstreck-fields (ridge-and-furrow field system). Here the settlers were provided with strips of land of an exact width. The starting point for settlements of the Aufstreck-type (linear street village) was the border between different types of soil; the worked strips of land could thus be extended into the adjacent peatland. This planned settlement reached its climax in the 12th/13th centuries, especially as the Julian flood of 1164 forced many people to move inland from the coast. Castles and stone houses were built only at the end of this series of settlement movement. Whereas the peat-marsh and the hinterland with its carr/ fen wood (Bruchwald / Wolden) and the highland peats were not settled at first, there were settlements on the coast in the early Middle Ages. As finds of ceramics with shell grit show, individual farm-dwelling mounds were built in the peat-marsh west and north of the Großes Meer (Woldmer Meer). These individual farm-dwelling mounds survived until the late Middle Ages. Presumably the point of departure for the settlement of the silt-covered peat was in the marsh. Finds of ceramic fragments with shell-grit in the peat and carr (Wolden) area of the Geest show that attempts to colonise the bog involved the construction of mounds. Three of four sites with ceramics of the 10th century also produced ceramics of the more recent medieval periods. In the late Middle Ages the inhabitants of the Aufstreck-settlements (linear street village) on the moor had to leave their land because the water could not be drained off. The settlements of Burhafe and Südwolde were abandoned, too. The Großes Meer came into being because of the drainage which followed and the stripping of peat from the bog. The old tracks connecting the Brookmerland with the Emsigerland could be used only occasionally; in some cases they could not be used at all.

The Brokmer are mentioned for the first time in the Östring (Rasteder) Chronicle of 1148; from 1251 the Brokmen appear as a separate community, the Brokmerland. The region was divided into three districts with two main churches each: Marienhof and Engerhafe, Wiegboldsbur and Burhafe (nowadays individual farms in the Victorbur Marsh), as well as Bedekaspel and Südwolde (Blaukirchen). The parishes belonged to the diocese of Münster. The bishop of Münster, who separated the Brookmerland from the deaneries of Uttum and Hinte and made it in its own parish, finally erected a castle in Fehnhusen in the parish of Engerhafe (the so-called Oldeborg), which formed the core of the present place. The rest of the colonised area with the places Bastede, Bangstede, Ochtelbur, Riepe, Simonswolde and the Cistercian monastery of Ihlow stayed with the Aurichland.

The Brookmerland had its own system of justice and with the Brookmer Letter its own constitution, too. In all of this the political leadership and the system of justice were, with the people living there, in the hands of the farmers appointed as officials for a year, the so-called Red-jeven. In the second half of the 14th century the powerful family, the Kenisnas, took over the title of chieftain and hence power in the same area. The family, who later adopted the name tom Brock, erected castles in Brooke and Aurich. Towards the end of the 13th century the Aurichland joined the Brookmerland and formed the fourth district of the Land community. The rule of the tom Brock family was ended by the struggle for supremacy over the Frieslands on both sides of the Ems, in which their chieftain Ocko II was defeated. The rule of the victor, Focko Ukena, over the Brookmerland ended around 1430 in a popular rising which developed into East Frisian uprising. On 14th December 1430 the East Frisian National Associations (Landesverbände) and the minor chieftains concluded the bond of liberty of the seven Frieslands under the leadership of the Cirksena family. Around 1440 the Cirksenas had progressed from being judges and guardians into the chieftains of the Brookmerland and the Aurichland. In 1464 they succeeded in having the emperor elevate their East Frisian territory to an imperial county. The areas ruled by their castles became regional authorities. Now the Brookmerland belonged to the district of Aurich and was made up of the North Brookmer Protectorate (Osteel, Marienhafe, Siegelsum) and the South Brookmer Protectorate (Engerhafe, Victorbur, Wiegboldsbur, Bedekaspel, Forlitz-Blaukirchen).
The principal settlement, Marienhafe, became a harbour for a time after the severe storm floods of 1374 and 1377, so that goods could be transported direct by water to the Münsterland. At the end of the 14th century pirates around Klaus Stötebeker based themselves in Marienhafe, as the harbour had been opened for the “victuallers”. The transhipment of the stolen goods was only stopped by the punitive expeditions of the Hanseatic City of Hamburg. However, by contrast to other East Frisian settlements Marienhafe was not destroyed in the process.
The inhabitants of the Brookmerland attained considerable wealth with farming, cattle breeding and trade. This was expressed particularly in the building of brick churches in the region, every village competing in the size and magnificence of their church. The churches of Marienhafe, Osteel, Engerhafe and Victorbur were built in the middle of the 13th century. Their construction is a milestone in the history of Frisian church building. The church in Marienhafe, Brookmerland’s market centre even vied with the Osnabrück Cathedral and was the largest church in north-western Germany. The lavish ruler’s box in its tower expressed the way in which the Brookmer population regarded itself. Their wealthy upper class felt themselves to be equal to the nobility. The present condition of the churches in Osteel, Marienhafe and Engerhafe do not reflect their original size, as these churches, which were gigantic in proportion to the size of the population, were reduced in area even from the Middle Ages.

3.2 Early Modern Times
In 1744 the Brookmerland, together with the whole of East Frisia, felt to Prussia. The division into the North and the South Brookmer Protectorates was kept. A legal basis for the settlement of wasteland was created by the Friedrich the Great’s edict of 22nd July 1765 to cultivate the land, which led many landless inhabitants of the Brookmerland to hope that they could support themselves by cultivating a piece of fenland. As early as 1765 the first colonists settled in Leezedorf, where in the course of the years a scattered settlement came into being. In 1767 the settlement of Moordorf began with the opening of a new area for settlement, the fehn colonies and in 1770 of Moorhusen and Münkeboe in the South Brookmer Protectorate. These first colonies finally formed a number of communities of a new type. On the other hand the areas of Norden and Greetsiel profited from the dyke building of Ley Bay; Brookmerland’s profit was slight. During the Napoleonic occupation (1806 – 1813) Brookmerland belonged to the arrondissement of Aurich, first in the Dutch, then French departement of Ostem. The northern part of the Brookmerland, as the mairie of Marienhafe with Marienhafe, Upgant, Schott, Leezdorf and Tjüche, belonged to the canton of Norden. The southern part of the Brookmerland was divided into the mairie of Victorbur ((Victorbur, Uthwerdum, Marsch, Theene, Neu-Ekels und Moordorf), Wiegboldsbur (Wiegboldsbur, Bedekaspel, Forlitz, Blaukirchen and Moorhusen together with Westerende and Fahne) and Engerhafe (Engerhafe, Marsch, Fehnhusen, Oldeborg, Upende) and belonged to the canton of Aurich.
After the wars of liberation the Brookmerland became part of East Frisia in the kingdom of Hanover (1815 – 1866) and was divided according to Hanoverian principles. Southern Brookmerland from Wiegboldsbur to Moorhusen together with Bangstede, Westerende, Barstede, Ochtelbur and Riepe the Sub-Protectorate Riepe of the Protectorate of Aurich. The parish of Osteel of the former North Brookmer Protectorate of Norden. The middle of the Brookmerland formed the Protectorate of Victorbur, which consisted of the Sub-Protectorate of Victorbur (parishes of Victorbur and Engerhafe) and the Sub-Protectorate of Marienhafe (parishes of Marienhafe and Siegelsum). On the 1st of January 1828 the Sub-Protectorate of Marienhafe was added to Norden. The boundary, which so arose between Aurich and Norden formed the boundary of the district of Aurich until 31st July 1977.
Agriculture continued to play a decisive role. However, the yields in the fenland colonies were at first slight because of massive problems with the cultivation of the land. For a long time the digging of peat and its sale provided people in these areas with a living. The economic situation in the fen colonies improved in the 19th century due to improvements being made in agricultural methods. Examples of constructions preserved from this period are the mill built in Leezdorf in 1896/1897 and the twin-cylinder water pump mill in Wirdum of 1872.

3.3 Modern Times
In 1938 there was community reform in South Brookmerland, in which the earlier communities Engerhafe, Fehnhusen, Oldeborg and Uende made up the larger community of Oldeborg. On the 1st August 1969 the local government area of Brookmerland was founded, which consists of the communities of Leezdorf, Marienhafe, Osteel, Rechtsupweg, Upgant-Schott and Wirdum. The dwelling mound -village of Wirdum originally belonged to Greetsiel, later to the former district of Emden and from 1932-1972 to the district of Norden, but then decided to join the Brookmerland. The administrative centre of the local government area with approxuimately 13.000 inhabitants is in Marienhafe. The community of South Brookmerland was established on 1st July 1972: it consisted of the communities of: Bedekaspel, Forlitz-Blaukirchen, Moordorf, Moorhusen, Münkeboe, Oldeborg, Theene, Uthwerdum, Victorbur and Wiegboldsbur. The community of South Brookmerland has a population of approximately 19.000.
Economically, tourism is a priority alongside agriculture and small commercial enterprises. The regional development of the Brookmerland, particularly its southern part, is, however, influenced by the proximity of the cities of Emden and Aurich. These two centres attract the majority of commuters from the Brookmerland.
The Brookmerland was opened up for traffic as early as 1863 by the road connection between Emden and Aurich as well as by the road branching from this one, which connects with Norden. The federal roads B 72 and B 210 still follow this route today. Around 1893 several country roads opened up further areas of the Brookmerland. Brookmerland was connected to the railway network in 1883 by the opening of lines between Emden and Aurich with its branch line to Norden. The railway lines run directly parallel to the roads.

4. Modern development and planning

In its regional planning report for 2005 the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning lists the Brookmerland as a region which is marked by strong economic growth worthwhile this development may not lead to an increased use of space for settlements, which is accompanied by traffic growth.

4.1 Land use
The structure of linear street villages (Aufstreck-settlement) is still well preserved. These are farms, strung together, one after the other, on the flat embankments used for settlement, which were intended to secure the edge of the peatland. In Leezdorf the original development of the place as a scattered village can still be recognised although a centre to the settlement with a market place has developed. However new developments have been built on the stripped peatland so changing the image of settlement which is still characterised by the kilometres of arable fields. In Marienhafe industrial and residential areas have been established which have largely obscured the main road orientated towards the marketplace. Since 1979 the amount of land used for agriculture has fallen continually. Grain is the most important crop; large areas are used for the growing of maize and rape-seed as well as for pasturage. There are a few wind farms.
The Haneburg (Hane Castle) in Upgant and Castle Upgant are isolated examples of cultural monuments which have been preserved; both of them originating from the 15th/16th century. The Upgant and the Marienhafe windmills are also significant historic buildings in the landscape.

4.2 Settlement development
The population of the Brookmerland has risen since 1970. The Brookmerland is characterised by its situation between the intermediate size centres of Norden and Aurich and the regional centres of Emden designated by the Regional Planning Programme of Lower Saxony (L-ROP). Aurich and Emden with its Volkswagen works are the main workplaces for commuters from the Brookmerland.
Tourism is an important constituent of the Brookmerland’s economy and is marked by a rising number of overnight stays. The number of visitors is strongly dependant on the season, as particularly summer tourism and day-visitors make for a great many visitors. In addition many employed people live only partly off tourism and small businesses play an important role in facilitating these overnight stays.
Alongside agriculture and small industrial enterprises, tourism has developed in South Brookmerland, particularly in the areas Bedekaspel and Forlitz-Blaukirchen with the recreation areas “Großes Meer” and “Kleines Meer”, into a significant economic factor. In these two places there are approximately 600 weekend and holiday homes. In addition a yacht marina, two camp-sites and an extensive network of bicycle tracks have been set up.
St. Mary’s church with its Störtebeker-tower in Marienhafe is a significant structure although only the central nave of the previous three naves of the vaulted, cruciform basilica of the 13th century have survived, as large parts of the church had to be demolished in 1822 because of dilapidation. The tower, too, which is said to have served Störtebeker as a refuge from 1396-1401, had its top two storeys removed. In the interior of the church the pulpit of 1669, and the organ built by G. von Holy from 1712 to 1715 survive, and a museum room commemorates Klaus Störtebeker. In addition there are mills in Marienhafe. The mill at the Mühlenloog, which can be visited, was built from 1770-1776 and heightened in 1821; the mill in the area Tjüche was built as a gallery windmill in 1895/96. Marienhafe has various sports facilities as an infrastructure for tourism. A permanent exhibition of the subject “Old Customs” is shown in the windmill at Leezedorf, a gallery mill. The mill in Upgant-Schott can also be viewed. The second oldest organ in East Frisia, built by Edo Evers in 1619, is in St. Warnfried’s church of the community of Osteel. The church goes back to the 13th century. There is a privately owned zoo in Rechtsupweg which may be visited. In 1996, 1999, 2002 and 2005 the Störtebeker Open Air Festival took place in the Brookmerland; and there is now the so-called Störtebeker Tourist Route.

4.3 Industry and energy
The majority of industrial and commercial enterprises are small and medium-sized firms. Besides workshops these are mainly service enterprises and firms in the areas of electrical and mechanical engineering. Since 1979 the area used by commerce and industry has almost doubled in the administrative area Brookmerland, and has even more than doubled in the community South Brookmerland. The production of regenerative energy from wind power is a growing market. Up to now only a very few wind farms have been built, e.g. the wind farm of Reithamm with its 60 m high wind turbines near Osteel.
The only trans-regional structures which should be mentioned are the gas and crude oil pipelines crossing the Brookmerland.

4.4 Infrastructure
Traffic access to the Brookmerland is shaped by the connections between the regional centre of Emden and the intermediate centres of Aurich and Norden. Today’s main roads, the B210 and the B72 follow the route of the old roads and go through the middle of the area of the Brookmerland north-south and west-east. Both the two main roads are used every day by between 5.000 and 10.000 cars. The road and rail junction of Georgsheil is South Brookmerland has an important function in the traffic access to the Brookmerland. The other regions are accessed by Land and district roads. The nearest motorway link is to the A31 near Emden.
Railway connections run parallel to federal roads. There is a railway station in Marienhafe, which provides connections with regional trains on the line from Emden to Norddeich-Mole, much frequented by tourists. Rail traffic on the line Abelitz to Aurich ceased on the 30th April 1996. Areas off the federal roads and thus the railway lines can only be reached by public transport via the bus routes of the integrated transport system Ems-Jade.
The Ems-Jade Canal, built between 1880 and 1888, runs through the southern edge of the Brookmerland. Having been used for some time mainly by sports boats its economic importance for goods transport has grown again in recent years.

5. Legal and spatial planning aspects

The region of the Brookmerland is subject to the Regional Planning Programme of the Land of Lower Saxony and the Regional Planning Programme set up by the district of Aurich.
The local government area of the Brookmerland and the community of South Brookmerland are part of East Frisia. This is the only community organization (Höherer Kommunalverband) in Lower Saxony.

6. Vulnerabilities

6.1 Settlement
The construction of new housing estates on the stripped fenland, adjacent to existing historic settlements, has created permanent changes in the settlement pattern. Many of the settlements are still well preserved, however the continuing pressure for development will make these vulnerable. The construction of holiday villages constitutes a serious problem as far as changes in the landscape in the Brookmerland are concerned.

6.2 Agriculture
The structural change in agriculture and the dependence of the future direction of this branch of business on the agricultural policy of the EU increases the trend towards intensification of production in the Brookmerland. At the same time the proportion of land under protection or land with restrictions on its use is leading to an increasing number of farms closing because of insufficient yields. Falling numbers of people employed in agriculture are leading to increasing commuter movement or the drift from the areas concerned, as the labour market in the rural areas cannot support the surplus work force. The nature of intensification and the abandonment of the original function of farms results in the cultural landscape being threatened by significant change.

6.3 Industry and energy
The debate on the setting up of wind farms has been growing in intensity in the Brookmerland in recent years. The increasing pressure from the industry on the communities to allocate land in their plans for wind farms is opposed by a growing number of local initiatives. In each case applied for it is essential to consider exactly in what form historic perspectives will change and the image of the historic cultural landscape will be spoilt.

6.4 Infrastructure
The possibilities for development of the rural areas are limited by the nature of the Brookmerland’s position between the centres Emden, Norden and Aurich. Yet the neighbouring town of Aurich suffers from the structural weakness of the region. According to the data contained in the regional planning report of 2005 the commuter movements in this region in the direction of Emden are increasing significantly. In this context the problem of insufficient traffic linkage, particularly in the eastern part of the South Brookmerland, is clear. In economic terms the town of Aurich is suffering due to this. The closure of the railway line from Abelitz to Aurich is having a negative effect. Although demands have been made for sometime for this connection to be reactivated and even the manufacturer of wind-energy installations has offered to take over some of the costs involved. However, this project is competing with one being discussed to create a motorway connection by extending the A31 to Aurich. This projected road would use part of the route of the disused railway. Building the motorway according to this plan would have far reaching consequences for the Brookmerland. First the Southbrookmerland would be cut through to a much greater extent than at present. Secondly the communities east of Georgsheil would have no chance of a rail connection. The problem would arise of infrastructure coming into being which would be atypical of the area in addition to the motorway route using more land than the railway, disturbing the image of the landscape and probably causing the entire region to be burdened by increasing traffic. Innovative traffic concepts are, however, urgently needed in view of the increasing movements of commuters created by the demands of industry and commerce for improved traffic linkage and of the possible increase in tourism.

7. Potentials

7.1 Strategic planning
To both protect and promote Brookmerland overall planning beyond the boundaries of the single cultural landscapes has become increasingly necessary. The crucial basis for the East Frisian area has been set up with the establishment of the Regional Structure Conference East Frisia, which amongst other things led to the founding of the Integrated Traffic System Ems-Jade (EVS), and the Regional Innovation Strategy for Tourism. The advantages of Krummhörn and its neighbouring region, can be increased and its disadvantages decreased by the interlinking of the cycle tracks and footpaths, as well as a programme range covering the single cultural landscapes.

7.2 Settlement
In the Brookmerland the forms of settlement and use of the landscape attuned to life on the moorland and its periphery are still recognisable in many aspects. The permanent interaction with the specific conditions of settlement in this area can be identified as the cultural-historic heritage in the landscape: village-dwelling mounds, linear street village-settlements with adjacent fields, windmills and drainage channels reflect the settlement history of the region.

7.3 Agriculture
An important pre-condition for maintaining the traditional structure of the landscape and the buildings within it is the use of the land by private individuals, tourism and agriculture. A chance of linking the two economic branches, tourism and agriculture, could be the expansion of ecological agriculture, as well as the inclusion and encouragement of farmers in processes aimed at preserving the countryside. The growing of renewable raw materials would offer further possibilities for development in agriculture. Also the potential of nature protection could be an additional source of income for agriculture, e.g. in the Grosses Meer region.

7.4 Tourism
The great attractiveness of the Brookmerland for tourism is the potential for economic development. The maintenance of the attractiveness of the landscape and the improvement of the tourist infrastructure will create the potential to improve the protection and management of the cultural heritage assets and the historic landscape.

7.5 Nature conservation
There is potential for the cultural heritage to be incorporated within management plans in those areas either protected as nature reserves or proposed to become nature reserves.

8. Sources

Author: Wolfgang Scherf

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Heun, S.: Archäologische Untersuchungen auf dem Hüttenplatz in Lütetsburg, Ldkr. Aurich. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland 18, 1995, 85-110.
van Lengen, H.: Bauernfreiheit und Häuptlingsherrlichkeit im Mittelalter. In: K.-E. Behre u. H. van Lengen (Hrsg.), Ostfriesland. Geschichte und Gestalt einer Kulturlandschaft. Aurich 1995, 113-134.
van Lengen, H.: Burgenbau und Stadtentwicklung. Führer zu archäologischen Denkmälern in Deutschland 35. Ostfriesland. Stuttgart 1999, 128-140.
Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Statistik: NLS-Online Tabelle K 6070411, K 6070412, Z 0000001
Reinhardt, W.: Die Orts- und Flurnamen Ostfrieslands in ihrer siedlungsgeschichtlichen Entwicklung. In: J. Ohling (Hrsg.), Ostfriesland im Schutze des Deiches 1. Pewsum 1969, 201-375.
Rödiger,H.-B., Ramm, H. 1979: Friesische Kirchen im Auricherland, Norderland, Brokmerland und im Krummhörn, Jever 1979.
Schwarz, W.: Die Wurten- und Moorlandschaft am Großen Meer. Archäologische Denkmäler zwischen Weser und Ems. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 34. Oldenburg 2000, 211-214.
Wassermann, E.: Aufstrecksiedlungen in Ostfriesland. Abhandlungen und Vorträge zur Geschichte Ostfrieslands 61. Aurich 1985.
Wirth, K.: Ein Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Besiedlung des Riepster Hammrichs, Gemeinde Ihlow, Landkreis Aurich. Offa 56, 1999, 105-119.
Full catalogue of historic maps used, survey evidence etc.
Karte des Nordwestlichen Teils von Ostfriesland. Herausgegeben vom Generalmajor Le Coq 1805, Sect. III. Nachdruck 1984.
Wolden: former parishes Badekaspel, Forlitz and Blaukirchen in the low lying area of the Grosse Meer.
Aufstreck-settlements: settlements set up on the basis of the Upstreek- law/ right (?) in accordance to which the length of a strip of land of a fixed width could be extended ad libitum.