Cultural Entities 

Land Wursten

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1. Overview


Land Wursten


Bordered to the north by the town of Cuxhaven, to the west by the Wadden Sea, to the south by the town of Bremerhaven and to the east by the Geest ridge “Hohe Lieth“.


Samtgemeinde (joint community) Land Wursten: 117 km², 9730 inhabitants.
Area under investigation: approx. 200-250 km²

Location - map:

Part of the national park „Wurster Wattenmeer“, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Origin of name:

This name stems from the lower German word Wursaten or Wurtsasses meaning “people sitting on dwelling mounds”.

Relationship/similarities with other cultural entities:

Zweiständerhaus (two pillared house), nucleated villages, Wurtendörfer (dwelling mound villages) (Emden, Jadebusen), marsh areas along the coast, Geest areas.

Characteristic elements and ensembles:

Dwelling-mounds, stone churches, marsh landscape, dykes

2. Geology and geography

2.1 General
The cultural landscape of Land Wursten lies in the administrative district of Cuxhaven. It consists of the joint community of Land Wursten and a coastal strip which reaches from the town of Cuxhaven in the north to the town of Bremerhaven in the south. The joint community (formed 1974) itself consists of 7 communities: Cappel, Dorum, Midlum, Misselwarden, Mulsum, Padingbüttel and Wremen. The marsh landscape lies in the western part of the so-called Elbe-Weser triangle. The area has a length of ca. 30 km and a breadth of 4 to 9 km. To the west the area under investigation is bordered by the tidal flat, to the north by the North Sea coast and to the east by the Geest ridges “Hohe Lieth“ and “Wurster Heide“. They run parallel to the “green coastal road” which leads from Cuxhaven to Bremerhaven. In the south, the area around Bremerhaven forms the border.
The prominent end moraine “Hohe Lieth“ developed during the penultimate cold stage (Saale-Kaltzeit) when the ice was pushing into Northern Germany. Today’s coastal line developed about 5.500 B.C. during a general sea-level rise (the Flanders Transgression). Several advances and retreats of the sea (transgressions and regressions) followed, each of which left sedimentary deposits.

2.2 Present landscape
In the coastal area, the Neue Marsch (new marsh) is sited on the coast, with the Alte Marsch (old marsh) sited further inland. The Neue Marsch is higher than the Alte Marsch; the soils are sandier and therefore better for agriculture. The Alte Marsch is lower-lying, has a more clayey ground, is wetter and therefore less well suited for agriculture. Presently this area is thinly inhabited and used mainly for pasture. The whole area is sparsely wooded, only in the north and east can a few enclosed woodlands be found. In order to avoid the continuous flooding of the wet marsh land the 20 km long Grauwall channel was built.

In front of the Land Wursten lies the Wurster Watt, which is also part of the National park Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. In total there are three national parks in the tidal flats; these were designated between 1985 and 1990, and are located in Schleswig Holstein, Lower Saxony and Hamburg. The protected area stretches from the East Frisian islands to Sylt.

3. Landscape and settlement history 

3.1 Prehistoric and Medieval Times
Worsatia is mentioned for the first time in the year 1203. This name stems from the lower German word Wursaten or Wurtsasses which describes the inhabitants of the area as “people sitting on dwelling mounds”.

The people of the Land Wursten had been using dwelling mounds since the Stone Age. There is ample archaeological evidence for Stone Age occupation: including the site of a camping ground near Nordholz, a stone tool production site near Midlum, the dense concentration of stone tools at the site of Neuenwalde, Neolithic settlements near Langen and Midlum as well as other finds. The sediments of the river marshes might further contain older Palaeolithic evidence. Between Imsum and Langen pottery sherds and flint tools of the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age have also been found.

The oldest recorded settlement sites in the marsh did not lie on the elevated ground but were level surface settlements (Alsum, Feddersen Wierde, Dorum, Mulsum and others). They were built during the time when the sea retreated from the coast around 100 B.C and existed until 100 A.D. The sea level subsequently rose again and the inhabitants of the first and second century A.D. responded to this environmental change by gradually raising the level of their dwelling places. They heaped up earth or dung and other waste, forming the Wurten or dwelling mounds. Over time these dwelling mounds got higher and higher and in some areas joined each other to create the Dorfwurten (villages on settlement mounds).

One of these dwelling mounds is the well known archaeological site of the Feddersen Wierde. Archaeological excavations here were able to shed light on the history of this settlement which lasted from the first century B.C until the 5th century A.D. In the overall area, in the course of the 4th and 5th century A.D, a decline in the numbers and size of settlements can be observed for the complete Elbe-Weser triangle.

Burials provide some information about the expectations of an afterlife for this period. An important site is the burial ground of Fallward with its numerous well preserved wooden finds such as the famous ”marsh throne”.

For the 7th and 8th century A.D. increased settlement activities are documented. The earliest settlements founded during this time were the Wurten Wremen, Misselwarden and Mulsumer Wierde. During the 9th and 10th centuries other areas of the new marsh were also settled, e.g. Cappel und Paddingbüttel. It is also known that in the 9th century ships were sailing from the Elbe and Weser to Scandinavia after Ansgar, the bishop of Bremen, began with the proselytisation of Scandinavia by 830 A.D.

During the 12th century the process of dyke construction began and the building of dwelling mounds lost its importance. The first dykes seem to have been summer dykes encircling the settlements and their agricultural areas. Some of these medieval dykes are still preserved. Only during the 17th century was the continuous process of change along the coast stopped by the construction of today’s coastal dyke.

The churches with their massive stone walls provided yet further protection against both storm tides and enemies. The stones came from the nearby Geest, sandstone from the Weser or tuff from the Eifel was used as well. The parishes of the Land Wursten were prosperous and this is reflected in the development of their own architectural style. The well preserved church buildings from the 12th to the 14th century in Imsum (Ochsenturm), Wremen, Mulsum, Dorum, Spieka, Misselwarden, Paddingbüttel and Midlum are good examples for this.

3.2 Early Modern Times
Towards the end of the Hanseatic League, the long distance roads from Stade and Bremen, which ran east and south respectively, were in place. The south and west of the area could be easily reached by ship via the Elbe and the Weser.

Following the Christian proselytisation of the area, the Land Wursten used to be a self-governed Bauernrepublik (farmers’ republic). For a long time there were conflicts with the archbishopric of Bremen until the Land Wursten lost its independence in 1525 and became part of Bremen.

During the Thirty Year’s War (1618 - 1648) Wursten was occupied by Protestant and Imperial forces. Sweden became one of the most powerful political forces of the 17th century in the North Sea region and followed an aggressive conquest policy. Whilst the Thirty Year’s War still raged, the Swedish moved into Wursten (1645). After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), Hither Pomerania, to the east of the Oder, the districts of Poel and Neukloster, the town of Wismar as well as the monasteries of Bremen and Verden all belonged to Sweden. But Wursten was not to be part of Sweden for long. During the “Big Northern War” (1700 – 1721) for a short time the Land Wursten belonged to Denmark (1712 – 1715) and later to the electorate of Hanover.

The Land Wursten is largely dominated by closed Haufendörfer (nucleated or scattered villages[U1]) and more dispersed villages, as well as the Wurtendörfer (villages on dwelling mounds). Such Wurtendörfer are also typical for the northern part of Butjadingen, the Wangerland north of Wilhelmshaven and for the area north of Emden. The most common farming building is the Niederdeutsche Hallenhaus (lower German hall house) or Niedersachsenhaus (Lower Saxony house).

3.3 Modern Times
The beginning of the modern period in the Land Wursten is characterised by the so-called French Time (1807-1815), this was not however long-lasting. After the Congress of Vienna (1815) Wursten was assigned to the kingdom of Hanover. Since 1866 the territories of Hanover belonged to Prussia.

By 1812 there were still no paved roads in the Land Wursten. Only with the building of the Hannoversche Chaussee, the Braunschweigische Heerstraße as well as the Oldenburgische Staatsweg in 1863, was a connection between Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven achieved. Just 30 years later, other small country roads were added to the road network in the Land Wursten. Thus, when the road network of 1893 is compared with that of today, the only recent addition is the Autobahn.

The train connection from Bremerhaven to Bremen was opened in 1862, with other connections to Mecklenburg (1865) and the Netherlands (1865) following soon after. By 1881 Harburg, Buxtehude and Stade could be reached from Cuxhaven by train. Almost 50 years later (1896) the train route through the Land Wursten was opened. Soon after that Bremervörde (1898) and Bremerhaven (1899) were connected to the train network of Stade.

After the downfall of the Third Reich the Land Wursten was integrated into the former administrative district of Stade in the federal state of Lower Saxony. In 1978 the administrative district of Stade was fused with the old district of Lüneburg and became the administrative district of Lüneburg. The district government is also sited here. The districts were dissolved in 2005.
For a long time Cuxhaven was of considerable importance as the nation’s main fishing centre. This situation changed during the last century, not least because of the International Maritime Law Conventions. The biggest economic importance in Cuxhaven and the Land Wursten now lies with agriculture, maritime industry and tourism.

4. Modern development and planning

The economic development in the Elbe-Weser region is strongly influenced by the two Main Order Centres of Bremen and Hamburg, the two biggest Hanseatic and port cities in Germany.

During the second half of this year the BBR (Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung/ federal office for building and land use planning) has introduced three new models for the land use planning which were developed by the federal government after its comments on the land use report 2005. These models could also be of importance to Wursten. The first item is the “Contribution to the economic growth“. Bordering on the Land Wursten there are two “Sites of metropolitan function” (Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven). These have potential for further growth which will be directly exploited. Another point of focus is the „taking precautions to secure existence”. Considering the prognosis of population development until 2050, it is to be expected that the population in the rural areas will decrease while the metropolitan regions will continue to grow. Nevertheless the official Institutions and Services of General Interest should to be preserved or at least stay within reach. The third point is the “Management of land use” for which the regional planning will increasingly have to take over the design and development functions. In Wursten there are substantial ground water resources which need to be protected. The same goes for the agriculturally characterised historic cultural landscape.

In the Land Wursten there are several institutions which deal primarily with regional development, such as the Stadtplanungsamt (city planning council of) Bremerhaven, the Kreisentwicklungsreferat of the Landkreis or des Landkreises (regional development department of the district of) Cuxhaven, the information centre Nationalpark Dorum and others.

4.1 Land use
The agricultural landscapes of Lower Saxony can be divided into marsh lands, valley meadows, Geest areas, loess ground in the foothills and loess hills in the Oberharz Mountains. Most of the ground is taken up by valley meadows, peatland Geest and Geest flats.
In Wursten there are some arable marshes in the western area and valley meadows and peatland Geest in the most northern part of the area. But the main part of the area under investigation is made up of grazing marshes in the west and south and of Geest flats in the east and north.

Even though agriculture has declined in the area due to outside influences, it is still of considerable importance in the Land Wursten. In the marshes wheat, corn and rape are cultivated. On the Geest rye, corn, rape and triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) are grown. Rye thrives on the light sandy soils because it is hardy and undemanding. Rye as well as corn can be used in the production of biogas and bio- ethanol. It is hoped that future breeds may make it possible to reduce the use of pesticides in tits cultivation. Today’s yields on the marshes already amount to approx. 85 cwt/hectare. The yields have increased strongly during the last years due to changes in fertilisation, modifications to arable practise and new breeds of plants. The yields from the grazing marshes, valley meadows and Geest are significantly lower. The grazing marshes largely support dairy cattle.

In Wursten the share of the population employed in agriculture is reciprocal to the population density. Thus in the less densely settled area in the west about 11% of the population are employed in agriculture, in the eastern part (around the Autobahn) less than 8% are in agriculture, in the northern part (Cuxhaven) less than 5 % and in the most densely settled area in and around Bremerhaven less than 2 % are employed in agriculture (figures for the year 1987).

4.2 Settlement development
The urban growth of Lower Saxony has been analysed for the years from 1871 up to the regional reformation of 1972 and then further on until 1993. In Bremen and Hamburg the population has doubled between 1821 and 1871. In Cuxhaven on the other hand the population only increased by about 17%. Because of the situation of Cuxhaven, on the outskirts of the metropolitan regions the population is stagnating or even declining.

In the BBR’s analysis of the trends of spatial development from June 2005 the Land Wursten belongs to the regions where the population and employment development are characterised by a slight decrease because of its location near the growth centre of Bremen.

According to the regional report for northern Germany 2005 (NIW) the population density in the western part of the Land Wursten is very sparse, with figures of between 50 and 100 people per km². Further to the east towards the Autobahn the density reaches 100 – 200 people/ km². In the south, in and around the town of Bremerhaven the density is highest with more than 500 people/ km², and in and around Cuxhaven the density goes up to 300-500 people/ km². In 2004 approximately 50% of the workers in Bremerhaven commuted to the town, the corresponding figure for Cuxhaven is between 10% and 25%..

In the Land Wursten it is possible to study at the national maritime academy or at the Hochschule Bremerhaven. Furthermore within the commuting radius there are the University of Hamburg, the technical colleges of Buxtehude (less than 1000 students), Elsfleth (less than 1000) and Oldenburg (1000-5000) as well as the state-approved FH Ottersberg (less than 1000). In the region in and around Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven there are 7 secondary schools.

In this rural area there is a large number of ecclesiastic and regional education centres. The cultural life is characterised by museums and local clubs. In Bremerhaven, Bremen and Hamburg there are several theatres, whilst in Cuxhaven there is a Niederdeutsche Bühne (lower German theatre). The nearest national theatres are situated west of the Weser, in Oldenburg and Wilhelmshaven.

Wursten belongs to the Association of Stade (Landschaftsverband Stade). It is part of the national park “Wurster Wattenmeer“ on the coast of Cuxhaven and the lower Elbe.

The State Office of Lower Saxony for statistics did a survey on the booked beds for the years between 1984 and 1994. According to this survey the overnight stays have almost doubled within those 10 years (a rise of 95%). For the time between 1987 and 1998 another distinct rise in the numbers of overnight stays was observed. Therefore the Land Wursten occupies, together with the coast of Eastern Frisia and the Emsland/der Grafschaft Bentheim, one of the pole positions of German holiday regions.

One possible reason for this development is the large number of tourist attractions: the whole Elbe-Weser region is sporting over 100 museums, e.g. in Bremerhaven there is the Historical Museum, the Collection of School History, the Supplies’ and Traffic Museum; in Cuxhaven the Castle Ritzebüttel; in Nordholz the Aeronauticum, in Neuenwalde the Museum for Local History and the monastery, the open air folklore museum Speckenbüttel, the prehistoric trail in Sievern, various archives, the lovely churches of Wremen, Mulsum, Dorum, Cappel as well as the Kurverwaltungen (health resort administrations of the) Land Wursten and of Cuxhaven.

Some of the museums and institutions deal explicitly with the characteristic local traits, e.g. the Museum for Fishing in the Tidal Flat in Wremen, the information centre Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer Land Wursten in Dorum and Cuxhaven, the Dike Museum of Lower Saxony in Dorum, the Sea Shell Museum in Nordholz, the Wreck Museum in Cuxhaven, the emigration exhibitions in Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven and in Bremerhaven die SSW Ferry and Specialised Ship Building Bremerhaven, the Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar- and Marine Research, Schaufenster Fischereihafen (showcase fishing harbour), the Atlanticum Forum Fischbahnhof, the museum ship FMS Gera, the Hanseatic Cog Shipyard, the light house of Cuxhaven and the German Shipping Museum.

4.3 Industry and energy
In Lower Saxony there are numerous industrial plants which (except for the catchment areas of Hamburg and Bremen) are concentrated mainly in the south of the federal state. The Land Wursten lies between the catchment areas of the principal industrial areas of Hamburg and Bremen and is not industrialised in itself.

Cuxhaven (5,000 employees) and Bremerhaven (15,000 employees) can be regarded as smaller industrial sites. The economy in the district of Cuxhaven consists of small and middle-sized businesses and the harbour economy. The Europakai in Cuxhaven has already been converted into a multi-purpose trans-shipment centre.

The Land Wursten is connected via the gas pipeline Cuxhaven-Bremerhaven-Osterholz-Scharmbeck with the subterranean gasholder of Bremen-Lesum. In the coastal region of the Elbe-Weser triangle the number of wind parks increases, like those of the SG Nordholz in the districts Cappel-Neufeld and Spieka-Neufeld.

4.4 Infrastructure
The Land Wursten is crossed by the Autobahn A-27 which links Cuxhaven and Bremen. Close to the Autobahn there is also the Grüne Küstenstraße (green coastal road) which follows a similar route but is more attractive for tourists and local traffic. The A-1 from Bremen towards Hamburg has already been completed between 1935 and 1941. There is no further Autobahn connection but the coastal Autobahn A-22 is already being planned.

In 1993 the first survey of the annual average number of vehicles using the Autobahn and federal roads on a daily basis was conducted with an average of about 10,000 vehicles per day. On the Autobahn between Bremen and Bremerhaven there were as many as 50,000 cars per day. Comparable numbers are found on the Autobahn A-1 from Bremen to Hamburg. Due to the low-levels of traffic, the other roads in the area have not been included in the survey. The business locations in the area (Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven) can easily be reached by the federal long distance roads.

Today the Cuxhaven-Bremerhaven railway line is a light railway which is still in regular service. The lines from Cuxhaven via Stade to Hamburg and those from Bremerhaven to Bremen towards Osnabrück or Hannover are busier.

In the area of the Land Wursten there are two big harbours (Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven). Two large federal waterways flow into the North Sea at Cuxhaven: the the Weser and the Elbe, the Oste and the Kiel Canal are branch off from the latter.

In the Land Wursten there is one airfield worth mentioning, the former military airfield of Nordholz-Spieka. Two international airports can be found at Bremen and Fuhlsbüttel.

5. Legal and spatial planning aspects

The joint community or Samtgemeinde of Land Wursten is subject to the spatial and land use program of the federal state of Lower Saxony and to the landscape frame plan and land use plan of that community.

In the Landes-Raumordnungsprogramm (regional planning program) of the Ministry of the federal state of Lower Saxony, the area between Cuxhaven and Bremerhaven was supposed to secure the further development of two main focus areas. Within this framework the town of Bremerhaven was designated as a High Order Centre with the town of Cuxhaven as a developing focus area.

In 1996 there was no regional cooperation between communal initiatives, nor any legal basis for regional cooperation. However, the Land Wursten was integrated into a system of double cooperation with neighbouring federal states. It was part of the Regional-Entwicklungskonzept (regional development concept) of Bremen and also within the Regional-Entwicklungkonzept mit erweitertem Betrachtungsraum (regional development concept with extended area of interest) of Hamburg.

6. Vulnerabilities

6.1 Agriculture
Due to an intensification of agriculture and the consolidation of farms during the last century (Hofstrerben – farm dying), there has been a loss of smaller, less profitable farm businesses. This has been caused by a lack of opportunities for expansion by smaller businesses and/or the lack of successors. There is also the possibility of an increasing move towards monocultures for the purposes of bio ethanol which could have an impact on the landscape. The enlargement of the remaining farm structures might eventually result in the destruction of historic features and monocultures.

6.2 Tourism
In Cuxhaven as well as in the small picturesque coastal villages such as Dorum, there is a threat of mass tourism in the form of day trippers and short term holiday makers from the nearby congested areas.

6.3 Industry and Energy
Further wind farm projects are planned for the Elbe-Weser triangle and these are likely to have a visual impact in the area as well as the potential to impact on buried archaeological remains.

6.4 Economy
Land Wursten is a rural area. According to the Statistikamt Nord the unemployment rate for the district of Cuxhaven (except Bremerhaven) amounted to 12,8% in 2005 and a further exodus of the population due to the economic situation of the area is to be expected. One problem is the coastal location of the Land Wursten meaning there is only development potential towards the south and the east into largely distributed markets. The number of industrial businesses in the Elbe-Weser area has been stagnating for years and the number of people employed in the manufacturing industry is steadily declining. This structural change frees more and more of the labour force but as the opportunity for the creation of new jobs is very slim in most cases the only option left for people loosing their jobs is to commute or move to the nearest city. In this way there is a danger that the communities of the Land Wursten might develop into mere dormitory towns, and identification with the traditional employment structures of the region might be lost. In Cuxhaven, the decline in the fishing industry has meant that the related businesses have also declined. The exodus of labour force and the declining overseas traffic have decimated the tax yields of the town. This has led to economy measures and reduced the town’s attractiveness.

7. Potentials

7.1 Settlement
Rural settlement in the Land Wursten is largely dominated by nucleated villages and more dispersed villages, as well as the Wurtendörfer (villages on dwelling mounds). The historic character of many rural villages survives. The most common agricultural building is the distinct Niederdeutsche Hallenhaus (lower German hall house) or Niedersachsenhaus (Lower Saxony house).

7.2 Management of the cultural heritage
The Land Wursten has a rich archaeological heritage, including the well known excavated site of the Feddersen Wierde. The sediments of the river marshes might contain Palaeolithic evidence and there is good potential for waterlogged prehistoric deposits. The dwelling mounds remained the focus for settlement until dyke construction began in the 12th century; some of the medieval dykes remain and both structures are highly visible features in the landscape. Well preserved churches in the Land Wursten parishes have their own distinct, architectural style and good examples from the 12th to 14th centuries survive.

7.3 Tourism
The biggest potential in this region can be seen in tourism since the Land Wursten is a versatile recreation area with a high density of monuments. The historic villages of Wurtendörfer Dorum, Mulsum and others are situated like beads on a string and demonstrate impressively the historical settlement development of the area. In the Land Wursten there are the seaside resorts of Dorum, Wremen, and Cuxhaven as well as the family-friendly holiday resorts of Cappel, Midlum, Misselwarden, Mulsum and Padingbüttel. Cuxhaven is the largest North Sea spa along the coast. Apart from museums, numerous historic churches and the monastery of Neuenwalde there are further institutions like dock yards or light houses which have a distinct maritime character and which can only be experienced here or in the neighbouring regions. Because the Land Wursten is situated near three conurbation centres (Hamburg, Bremerhaven, Bremen) it is especially important as recreational area for people coming for a short holiday. There is currently a growing demand for „Ferien auf dem Bauernhof“ (farm holidays) which might offer opportunities for preserving historic farming economies.

7.4 Infrastructure
The nearby seaport of Cuxhaven is of great interest not only to the residents of the surrounding rural areas but also as an attractive location to new industries.

7.5 Economy
For the Land Wursten there is development potential in the fields of tourism, agriculture, food production, biogas, offshore technology and logistics. The fish-processing industry is an important employer and recently the trade union „Nahrung, Genuß, Gaststätten“ (food, drink and tobacco, restaurants) held an experts’ meeting about the future of the fishing industry in Cuxhaven. The question was what could be done to secure the existence of the local businesses and what were the roles of marketing and quality management. It was stated that Cuxhaven as well as Bremerhaven were both competitive but ought to rely more on shared strengths and cooperate with each other. It was assumed that the demand for fish is going to increase and that the customers will be willing to pay higher prices for better quality.

Modern ways of farming are well represented in the area: in Lower Saxony there is the highest number of biogas works to be found nationwide, presently about 500. According to the head of the Landvolk J. Heusmann an increase in the production of milk in the Elbe-Weser triangle can also to be expected. Next to agriculture there are other economic businesses providing employment in this region, e.g. industrial businesses (foundry, metal packaging, electro recycling) and energy businesses (Energie-Kontor-AG, refuse incineration heat and a power station, water supply works, sewage treatment plant). Due to the amount of space available, property for commercial use can be purchased at low prices.

8. Sources

Author: M. Riebau

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Homepages: SG Land Wursten; Information aus der Forschung des BBR (Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung) Nr. 3 / Juni 2005; BBR Leitbilder und Konzepte/ Neue Leitbilder in der Raumentwicklung nach dem 30. Juni 2006.

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Lehrke, U. (2006): Auf leichten Böden viele Vorteile. In : Land und Forst Nr. 37, Landwirtschaft und Landleben in Niedersachsen. Zeitschrift, Hrsg. Landvolk Niedersachsen – Landesbauernverband e. V., Landwirtschaftkammer Niedersachsen.

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Riebau, M. (2005): Die schwedische Matrikelkarte von Vorpommern und ihre Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Bodendenkmäler, dargestellt am Beispiel der Gebiete um Greifswald-Wusterhusen und der Insel Usedom. In: Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas 41. Langenweißbach 2005.

Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz in Verbindung mit dem Nordwestdeutschen und dem West- und Süddeutschen Verband für Altertumsforschung Hrsg. (1976): Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmälern. Band 29. Das Elbe-Weser-Dreieck I. Einführende Aufsätze. Mainz 1976.

Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz in Verbindung mit dem Nordwestdeutschen und dem West- und Süddeutschen Verband für Altertumsforschung Hrsg. (1976): Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmälern. Band 30. Das Elbe-Weser-Dreieck II. Forschungsprobleme - Exkursionen. Mainz 1976.

Schlüsselburg, B. & Schumann, N. (2000): Hadeln, Wursten und Kehdingen. Hamburg 2000.

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Zeitungsartikel: Sonntagsjournal der Nordsee-Zeitung vom 12. 11.2006, S. 22: Verzögerung sorgt für Minus; Elbe-Weser Aktuell vom 8. 11.2006, S. 4: „Chancen müssen genutzt werden“, S. 6: „Chancen brauchen Unterstützung“